The majestic monumental structure the Maiden Tower rises on the territory of thefortress of Icheri Sheher and is a symbol of the city of Baku. The tower has many legends that make it more mysterious and interesting. The tower is a stone cylinder with a diameter of 16.5 meters and a height of 28 meters. The thickness of the walls, laid out of the local gray limestone, at the base is equal to five meters, and in the upper part - four meters. The eastern side of the tower has a ledge, the purpose of which is still controversial. Inside the tower is divided into 8 tiers, between which was a spiral stone staircase, laid in the thickness of the wall. A well is pierced with a depth of 21 m in the rock. Today inside is a beautiful, interactive museum of the history of 11/12 centuries of Azerbaijan. Armor, weapons, maps and a lot of other things. At the top is a round observation deck, with a gilded compass in the middle, from where a beautiful view of Baku and the Baku bay opens. The exact time of construction of the Maiden Tower is still not certain. It is known that in the 12th century the Maiden Tower became the main stronghold of the most powerful Baku fortress, in the 13-19 centuries the Maiden Tower was used as a beacon, and since 1964 the Maiden Tower became a museum included in the 2000 in the list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Gobustan Nature Reserve
Gobustan - an open-air museum, historical reserve - is located to the south of the city of Baku. Gobustan was the residence of primitive people, as evidenced by rock paintings - petroglyphs. Cave paintings help us understand the life style, traditions, customs, and culture of primitive people. Archaeologists managed to find more than 6 thousand drawings on 1000 rocks, caves, sites, as well as many items of material culture. The most ancient finds belong to the Mesolithic age. The reserve also draws attention to the fact that an inscription of 6 lines, which was made by the Romans was found here. The inscription refers to 81 - 96 years of our era - the reign of Emperor Domitian. There are the first stone musical instruments - Gavaldash in Gobustan. They are at the foot of the mountains. Tapping on them with a small stone, you get various clear sounds, reminiscent of a drum, naghara. An excursion to Gobustan begins with an interactive museum. There are several thematic halls in the museum and with the help of touch screens you can get acquainted with the fauna, flora of that time, labor tools and mock-ups of primitive people. Gobustan takes a place in the list of the World Cultural Heritage of UNESCO.
Ateshgah and Yanardagh
The temple of eternal fire Ateshgah is a unique masterpiece among the sights of Azerbaijan. Its fame goes far beyond the city of Baku, in which it is located and known practically throughout the world. The temple, which you can see today, is a pentagonal structure with a crenellated wall and an entrance in the form of a portal. In the center of the courtyard stands an altar in the form of a stone pavilion, in the corners of which there are fireplaces. In the center of the altar itself is a well, from which a burning gas was rising. The structure was erected in the 17-18 centuries by the Hindu community of the Sikh caste. But the history of the temple is much older. Long before that, there was an ancient sanctuary of the Zoroastrians, who provided fire with special, mystical properties and came to worship the shrine.
On the territory of Azerbaijan, which is called the country of lights, there is a burning mountain, and in other words - Yanar dag. Yanardag is one of the most amazing natural attractions of the Apsheron Peninsula and is a mountainside that is swept by a flame that cannot be extinguished by rain or covered with sand burning for several millennia. Fiery landscape can be explained very simply: natural gas is released from the upper layers of the soil, when it comes into contact with oxygen, it turns into a flame. There are many legends connected with the mountain, and local people and pilgrims from all over the world still consider the mountain sacred and come to worship it or engage in meditation on its hot slopes.
State Flag Square
On the territory of Primorsk National Park, on the Caspian coast, next to the square of Azadlig is the State Flag Square, where the flag of the Republic of Azerbaijan is fluttered against the blue sea and sky. The Museum of the State Flag (building in the form of an eight-pointed star) functions here, where orders, medals, money, postage stamps, flags and other exhibits telling about the history of the country are presented. Until 2011, the flagpole, which was installed on the square, was considered to be the highest in the world - its 162 m even hit the Guinness Book of Records. The imagination and dimensions of the flag are striking: 75 x 35 m, weight - about 350 kg.
Heydar Aliyev Center
The cultural center of Heydar Aliyev is located on the eponymous avenue in Baku. Heydar Aliyev Center is something extraordinary, snow-white, big, beautiful, amazing imagination. The author of this beauty is the English architect Zaha Hadid. The center was opened in 2012. In 2014 it is recognized as the best building in the world. In this magnificent complex there is a museum, exhibition halls, a congress center. The exhibition "Masterpieces of Azerbaijan" is presented on the ground floor of the Center. It exhibits unique exhibits, reflecting the inexhaustible natural wealth, the country's centuries-old history, and its cultural heritage. One of the most important features of the exposition is that it presents all periods of the history of Azerbaijan; the exhibits relating to different areas of Azerbaijani culture are displayed. Thus, unique examples of ancient handicrafts, in particular the Azerbaijani carpet weaving school, are exhibited at the exhibition; a special interest is attracted by the demonstration of copper products. The ancient Azerbaijani musical instruments are presented in the original sound form. The exhibition features national clothes and ancient coins, attract the attention of the sacred books of various religions, whose representatives live in Azerbaijan, known as the space of tolerance. On the territory of the complex there is a beautiful park with many interesting figures that perfectly complement it; there is also a pond and a small lake where you can relax. Describing the beauty of the center is very difficult; it must be seen with your own eyes!
Azerbaijan Carpet Museum
Carpet weaving in the Azerbaijani land was born in ancient times. This fact is proved by many archaeological studies conducted in the ancient settlements of the country. A brilliant master of carpet weaving, the national artist of the Azerbaijan SSR Latif Kerimov thought for the first time about the need to preserve and multiply this cultural heritage. Thanks to his efforts the world's first museum specializing in the study of centuries-old crafts had been created. Work on the collection of material was started in the distant 1967 and only in 1972 the first visitors could see his rare exhibits. The place for the exhibition was chosen very successfully, the ancient carpets organically blended into the interiors of the ancient building "Juma-mosque" in the heart of the fortress of Icheri Sheher. Since its foundation, a unique exposition has been replenished not only with carpets, but with other samples of national Azerbaijani art. Today it has more than 14 000 exhibits: rare carpets, exquisite jewelry, clothing, embroidery, modern filigree works of glass, wood, felt. Thus, the museum is a real color of the culture of the republic. In August 2014, the relics found their new luxury home - a palace in the form of a folded carpet. The authors of the project were well-known Austrian architects Frans Jans and Valter Marie. The Azerbaijan Carpet Museum features a variety of schools and techniques of craftsmanship from all over the Republic, covering various stages of the history of the development of this art. Among the exhibits are: a flap of the Tabriz carpet "Ovchulug" and the Karabakh "Dragon carpet", both woven in the XVII century, as well as the carpet "Hila Afshan" of the XVIII century from the village of Khila.
Juma mosque in Icheri Sheher has been functioning since the 12th century. This mosque was built in 1899 with the money of the Baku patron of art Haji Shihali Dadashev. The mosque was built on the site of the temple of fire worshipers. In the XIV century the temple was turned into a mosque. According to the inscription on the mosque "in the month of Rajab 709 AH (1309) Amir Sharafaddin Mahmud ordered to renew this mosque." In the 15th century a minaret was attached to the mosque from the north side. By the end of the XIX century the old mosque fell into disrepair and a new - Juma mosque in its place was erected. Juma mosque itself is small. There is a small room for men, chapels for women. Of interest is the conical dome of the building, which is supported by four columns located in the center of the Juma Mosque.
Caravanserai in Baku
The caravanserais are considered one of the main sights of Baku. They were built on trade routes from East to West and were guest houses for recreation, designed for travelers and traders, including animal rooms. All caravanserais were divided into two types: open and closed. Closed caravan-sarais were small fortresses, which in case of danger could repel an attack. They were one or two-story buildings surrounded by a fortress wall. Open caravanserais were characteristic of the city. They were more like hotels with stables and animal pens. In addition, there were teahouses, baths and many other buildings and institutions needed for travelers. On the territory of the Old City, there are still three caravan-sheds: Multani (the 15th century), Bukhara (the 15th century) and Kasum-bek (17th century). Today, the Caravanserai in the Old City is an ideal place to taste the national cuisine, listen to live music and immerse yourself in the atmosphere of old times.
Maraza is a settlement in the Gobustan district and attracts attention by the monument "Diri Baba". "Diri Baba" means "Living Grandfather" in the sense of the immortal. According to some reports, the monument was built in 1402. This monument is called in different ways: a mausoleum, a tomb, a burial vault or a mosque. Many legends and mystical details wander around the neat two-story mausoleum, which stands out against the background of rock irregularities. Local people believe that if you put your hand on a stone inside a room in a rock and make a wish, then it will necessarily be fulfilled.
Lakhydzh is known as the craft center of the Middle Ages. In the city of masters people are engaged in blacksmithing, pottery, carpet weaving, knitting. Even today, along the main shopping street, there are workshops where artisans make various products. They are always happy to tell stories about the village and not only. From them you can buy copper products, carpets, souvenirs. Masters will be happy to make anything you want "here and now." Narrow streets, houses built of river stones in 2 floors, residents who observe ancient traditions, as well as mountain landscapes, rich forests, springs and waterfalls are very impressive and reproduce the power of the city.
The village of Ivanovka differs from others in its traditions, way of life, impressive poppy and sunflower fields. The village was founded by Molokans, who came from Russia. Despite the fact that representatives of different nations live here today, this territory has been saturated with the Russian spirit. Ivanovka is one of those places where people move away from the city fuss and find inner harmony and tranquility. Beautiful nature, beautiful views of the Caucasus Mountains, delicious fresh dairy products, wine, honey: all this Ivanovka.